Enzymes in the Human Body

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What are Enzymes ?

Enzymes are proteins that control the speed of chemical reactions in our body. Without enzymes, these reactions would take place too slowly to keep us alive. Some enzymes, like the ones in our gut, break down large molecules into smaller ones. Others, like the enzymes that make DNA, use small molecules to build up large complex ones. Enzymes also help cells to communicate with each other, keeping cell growth, life and death under control.some of the important functions of the enzymes are as follows :-

Enzymes helps in digestion:-

  1. Enzymes are the workhorses of the body. When you eat, enzymes break down the food into tiny particles which can be converted into energy in the body. Enzymes in the digestive system belong to an enzyme class called hydrolase. 
  2. Hydrolases triggers a reaction called hydrolysis, which breaks large molecules down into smaller units. An  hydrolase, called protease, triggers reactions that break the proteins in to it's  constituent parts, which are called amino acids. 
  3. Another type of hydrolase, called lipase, is secreted by pancreas gland  it breaks down the fats of the diet. A third type of hydrolase, called amylase, triggers the breakdown of certain carbohydrate starches in the diet

Enzymes helps in DNA Copying 

  1. The DNA in our cell  is contained in strands of material called chromosomes.The specific areas of each chromosome contains our individual genes.
  2. These genes together hold the information that determines our inherited characteristics.When cells in our body divide, each newly created cell must contain copies of our DNA.
  3. To carry out this copying, our body is dependent on a enzyme that include helicase,which unwinds the  DNA strands from it's normal helix shape  and DNA polymerase which in turn activates the copying process.

Transformation of Glucose in to energy 

  1. To get energy from glucose our body carries out a chemical reaction that is a predetermined order of  ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions called Glycolysis.
  2. Glycolysis eventually leads to the creation of an essential fuel called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which powers most of our cells. For each step of glycolysis our body is relied on different enzymes 
Important enzymes secreted by human body
Enzyme    Secreted by   Function
Salivary Amylase (Ptyalin)  Salivary Glands Converts starch to maltose
Renin    Stomach     Converts milk proteins to peptides
Pepsin     Stomach   Converts other proteins to peptides
Gastric Amylase           Stomach   Converts starch to maltose
Gastric Lipase         Stomach Converts butter fat into fatty acids and glycerol
Trypsin   Pancreas  Converts proteins to peptides
Chymotrypsin     Pancreas        Converts proteins to peptides
Steapsin (Pancreatic Lipase) Pancrease    Converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol

Carboxy polypeptidase

Pancreas Converts peptides into amino acid
Pancreatic Amylase     Pancreas    Converts starch to maltose
Entirokinase       Small Intestine    It activates trypsinogen to tryspsin
Eripsin     Small Intestine   Digest peptones into amino acids
Maltase        

Small Intestine  

Digests Maltose to glucose
Sucrase         Small Intestine        Digests sucrose into glucose and fructose
Lactase     Small Intestine       Splits the milk sugar lactose, to produce the sugars glucose and galactose

 

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