Enzymes in the Human Body
What are Enzymes ?
Enzymes are proteins that control the speed of chemical reactions in our body. Without enzymes, these reactions would take place too slowly to keep us alive. Some enzymes, like the ones in our gut, break down large molecules into smaller ones. Others, like the enzymes that make DNA, use small molecules to build up large complex ones. Enzymes also help cells to communicate with each other, keeping cell growth, life and death under control.some of the important functions of the enzymes are as follows :-
Enzymes helps in digestion:-
- Enzymes are the workhorses of the body. When you eat, enzymes break down the food into tiny particles which can be converted into energy in the body. Enzymes in the digestive system belong to an enzyme class called hydrolase.
- Hydrolases triggers a reaction called hydrolysis, which breaks large molecules down into smaller units. An hydrolase, called protease, triggers reactions that break the proteins in to it's constituent parts, which are called amino acids.
- Another type of hydrolase, called lipase, is secreted by pancreas gland it breaks down the fats of the diet. A third type of hydrolase, called amylase, triggers the breakdown of certain carbohydrate starches in the diet
Enzymes helps in DNA Copying
- The DNA in our cell is contained in strands of material called chromosomes.The specific areas of each chromosome contains our individual genes.
- These genes together hold the information that determines our inherited characteristics.When cells in our body divide, each newly created cell must contain copies of our DNA.
- To carry out this copying, our body is dependent on a enzyme that include helicase,which unwinds the DNA strands from it's normal helix shape and DNA polymerase which in turn activates the copying process.
Transformation of Glucose in to energy
- To get energy from glucose our body carries out a chemical reaction that is a predetermined order of ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions called Glycolysis.
- Glycolysis eventually leads to the creation of an essential fuel called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which powers most of our cells. For each step of glycolysis our body is relied on different enzymes
|Salivary Amylase (Ptyalin)||Salivary Glands||Converts starch to maltose|
|Renin||Stomach||Converts milk proteins to peptides|
|Pepsin||Stomach||Converts other proteins to peptides|
|Gastric Amylase||Stomach||Converts starch to maltose|
|Gastric Lipase||Stomach||Converts butter fat into fatty acids and glycerol|
|Trypsin||Pancreas||Converts proteins to peptides|
|Chymotrypsin||Pancreas||Converts proteins to peptides|
|Steapsin (Pancreatic Lipase)||Pancrease||Converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol|
|Pancreas||Converts peptides into amino acid|
|Pancreatic Amylase||Pancreas||Converts starch to maltose|
|Entirokinase||Small Intestine||It activates trypsinogen to tryspsin|
|Eripsin||Small Intestine||Digest peptones into amino acids|
|Digests Maltose to glucose|
|Sucrase||Small Intestine||Digests sucrose into glucose and fructose|
|Lactase||Small Intestine||Splits the milk sugar lactose, to produce the sugars glucose and galactose|