Nobel Prize 2014: A glance

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Nobel Prize, considered the most prestigious and coveted awards on the planet, have been declared in all categories for the year 2014.

The Winners

Economics 

  • French economist Jean Tirole for his analysis of market power and regulation.  
  • The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace have been awarded since the inception of Nobel Prize in 1901, however the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was created in 1968.
  • The economics prize is officially called the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

Peace

  • Kailash Satyarthi (India) and Pakistani child right activist Malala Yousafzai.

Literature

  • French author Patrick Modiano.

Chemistry

  • American duo of Eric Betzig and William Moerner alongwith Stefan Hell (Germany).  
  • They bag the coveted award for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy which helps us see finer details compared to the earlier ones.

Physics

  • Japanese Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano alongwith Shuji Nakamura (US) for their invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes (LED) which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources.

Medicine

  • British-American researcher John O'Keefe alongwith Norwegian couple, Edvard Moser and May-Britt Moser for their discovery of the brain's GPS system.  
  • They revealed the mystery behind how the brain knows where we are and is able to navigate from one place to another.

Interesting facts about Nobel Prizes

  • Prizes can only be awarded to individuals, except the Peace Prize.
  • Each award can be given to a maximum of three people per year.
  • Each prize constitutes a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money.
  • If there are multiple winners of one subject, the award money is split equally among the winners.
  • The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway, while the other prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • The Literature and Peace Prizes are considered to be controversial as the award criteria is subjective.
  • Someone cannot be nominated posthumously. Yet, if someone was alive when nominated but died before the award was given, they may be awarded posthumously.

Multiple Laureates

Four people have received two Nobel Prizes

  • Marie Curie: 1903 (Physics), 1911 (Chemistry); only laureate in two different sciences
  • Linus Pauling: 1954 (Chemistry), 1962 (Peace) ;only laureate of two unshared prizes
  • John Bardeen: 1956 and 1972 Prizes for Physics
  • Frederick Sanger: 1958 and 1980 for Chemistry

Most awarded

  • Red Cross- Thrice, in 1917, 1944 and 1963

Laureates who declined the award

  • Jean-Paul Sartre and Le Duc Tho are the only two in history to have rejected their Nobel prizes in Literature and Peace respectively.

The oldest recipient

  • 90 year old Leonid Hurwicz, who won it in 2007 for his contributions to economics.

The youngest recipient

  • Malala Yousafzai
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